Internationella publikationer

Heap, J., Fritzell, J., & Lennartsson, C.  Associations between and coexistence of disadvantages in the oldest old people in Sweden: Patterns of change between 1992 and 2011. Journal of European Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1177/0958928718760100

Dahlberg, L., Agahi, N., & Lennartsson, C. (2018). Lonelier than ever? Loneliness of older people over two decades. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 75: 96-103. https://DOI.org/10.1016/j.archger.2017.11.004

Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., & Lennartsson, C. (2018). Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: Results of a 20-year national study. Aging & Mental Health, 22(2): 190-196. https://DOI.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1247425

Dahlberg, L., Berndt, H., Lennartsson, C., & Schön, P. (2018). Receipt of formal and informal help with specific care tasks among older people living in their own home. National trends over two decades. Social Policy & Administration, 52(1): 91-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12295

Dahlberg, L., Agahi, N., Schön, P., & Lennartsson, C. (2018). Planned and unplanned hospital admissions and their relationship with social factors: Findings from a national, prospective study of people aged 76 years or older. Health Services Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13001

Darin-Mattsson, A., Andel, R., Celeste, R. K., & Kåreholt, I. (2018). Linking financial hardship throughout the life-course with psychological distress in old age: Sensitive period, accumulation of risks, and chain of risks hypotheses. Social Science & Medicine, 201; 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.02.012

Lennartsson, C., Eyjólfsdóttir, HS., Celeste, R.K., & Fritzell, J. (2018) Social class and Infirmity. The role of social class over the life-course. Social Science & Medicine, Population Health, 4:169-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.12.001

Celeste, R. K., & Fritzell, J. (2018)Do Socioeconomic Inequalities in Pain, Psychological Distress and Oral Health Increase or Decrease Over the Life Course? Evidence from Sweden over 43 years of follow-up, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 72:160-167. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209123

Agahi N, Fors S, Fritzell J, Shaw BA. (2018). Smoking and physical inactivity as predictors of mobility impairment during late life: Exploring differential vulnerability across education level in Sweden. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 73(4): 675–683, https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbw090

Shaw BA, Fors S, Fritzell J, Lennartsson, C, & Agahi N. (2018). Who lives alone during old age? Trends in the social and functional disadvantages of Sweden’s solitary living older adults. Research on Aging, 40(9):815-838. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027517747120

Darin-Mattsson, A., Fors, A., & Kåreholt, I. (2017) Different indicators of socioeconomic status and their relative importance as determinants of health in old age. International Journal for Equity in Health. 16:173, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-017-0670-3.

Kelfve, S. Underestimated health inequalities among older people—A consequence of excluding the most disabled and disadvantaged. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, gbx032, https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbx032

Kelfve, S., Fors, S., & Lennartsson, C. (2017). Getting better all the time? Selective attrition and compositional changes in longitudinal and life-course studies. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 8(1), 104-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.14301/llcs.v8i1.350

Nilsen, C., Agahi, N., Shaw, BA. (2017). Does the association between leisure activities and survival in old age differ by living arrangement? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-209614

Nilsen, C., Agahi, N. & Kåreholt, I. (2017) Work stressors in late midlife and physical functioning in old age. Journal of Aging and Health, 29(5), 893-911. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264316654673

Heap, J., Fors, S., & Lennartsson, C. (2017). Coexisting disadvantages in later life: Demographic and socio-economic inequalities. Journal of Population Ageing, 10(3): 247–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-016-9158-y

Agahi, N., Kelfve, S., Lennartsson, C., & Kåreholt, I. 2016. Alcohol consumption in very old age and its association with survival: a matter of health and physical function. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 159: 240-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.12.022

Berndt H, & Fors S. (2016). Childhood living conditions, education and health among the oldest old in Sweden. Ageing & Society, 36(3): 631–648. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X14001470

Ericsson, M.C., Gatz, M., Kåreholt, I., Parker, M.G., & Fors, S. (2016) Validation of abridged Mini-Mental State Examination scales using population based data from Sweden and USA. European Journal of Ageing. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-016-0394-z.

Nilsen, C., Andel, R., Fritzell, J., & Kåreholt, I. (2016) Work-Related Stress in Midlife and All-Cause Mortality: Can Sense of Coherence Modify This Association? European Journal of Public Health, 26(6), 1055-1061. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckw086

Sundberg, L., Agahi, N., Fritzell, J., & Fors, S. (2016). Trends in health expectancies among the oldest old in Sweden, 1992–2011. The European Journal of Public Health European Journal of Public Health, 26(6): 1069–1074, https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckw066

Andel R, Silverstein M, & Kåreholt I. (2015). The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition. The journals of gerontology Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, 70(2):314-21. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbu110

Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., Mckee, K.J., & Lennartsson, C. (2015). Predictors of loneliness among older women and men in Sweden: A national longitudinal study. Aging & Mental Health, 19(5): 409-417. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2014.944091

Darin-Mattsson A, Andel R, Fors S, Kåreholt I. (2015). Are occupational complexity and socioeconomic position related to psychological distress 20 years later? Journal of Aging & Health, 27(7): 1266 –1285. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264315580120

Fors S & Thorslund, M. (2015). Enduring Inequality: Educational disparities in health among the oldest old in Sweden 1992-2011. International Journal of Public Health 60: 91-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0621-3

Kelfve S, & Ahacic K. (2015). Bias in estimates of alcohol use among older people: selection effects due to design, health, and cohort replacement. BMC Public Health, 15(1):769. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2114-6

Meinow B, Kåreholt I, Thorslund, M, & Parker, M. G. (2015). Complex health problems among the oldest old in Sweden: increased prevalence rates between 1992 and 2002 and stable rates thereafter. European Journal of Aging 12: 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-015-0351-2

Lexomboon D, Wårdh I, Thorslund M, Parker MG. (2015). Determinants of tooth loss and chewing ability in mid- and late life in three Swedish birth cohorts. Ageing & Society Volume 35(6):1304-1317. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X14000282

Silverstein M, & Heap J. (2015). Sense of coherence changes with aging over the second half of life. Advances in Life Course Research, 23, 98-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2014.12.002

Heap J, & Fors S. (2015). Duration and accumulation of disadvantages in old age. Social Indicators Research, 123: 411-429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0744-1

Kelfve S, Agahi N, Darin Mattsson A, & Lennartsson C. (2014). Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.; 31:3, 245-260. https://doi.org/10.2478/nsad-2014-0020

Nilsen, C., Andel, R., Fors, S., Meinow, B., Mattsson, A. D., & Kåreholt, I. (2014). Associations between work-related stress in late midlife, educational attainment, and serious health problems in old age: a longitudinal study with over 20 years of follow-up. BMC Public Health, 14:878. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-878

Wastersson, J., Fors, S. Parker, M.G. & Johnell, K. Inequalities in health care use among older adults in Sweden 1992– 2011: A repeated cross-sectional study of Swedes aged 77 years and older. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2014; 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494814557150.

Agahi N, Shaw BA, & Fors S. (2014). Social and economic conditions in childhood and the progression of functional health problems from midlife into old age. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68:734–740. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2013-203698

Larsson K, Kåreholt I, & Thorslund M. (2014). Care utilisation in the last years of life in Sweden: The effects of gender and marital status differ by type of care. European Journal of Ageing 11: 349-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-014-0320-1

Lennartsson C, Agahi N, Hols-Salén L, et al. (2014) Data Resource Profile: The Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD). International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(3): 731–738, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu057

Shaw BA, & Agahi N. (2014). Smoking and physical inactivity patterns during midlife as predictors of all-cause mortality and disability: A 39-year prospective study. European Journal of Ageing 2014; 11(3):195-204, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-013-0298-0

Agahi N, Lennartsson C, Kåreholt I, & Shaw B. (2013). Trajectories of social activities from middle age to old age and late-life disability – a 36-year follow-up. Age and Ageing 2013; 42(6):790-793. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/aft140

Agahi N, & Shaw BA. (2013). Smoking trajectories from midlife to old age and the development of non-life-threatening health problems: A 34-year prospective cohort study. Preventive Medicine, 57(2):107-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.04.016

Fors, S, Agahi, N, & Shaw, BA. (2013). Paying the price? The impact of smoking and obesity on health inequalities in later life. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41(2):134-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494812468966

Heap J, Lennartsson C, & Thorslund M. (2013). Coexisting disadvantages across the adult age span: a comparison of older and younger age groups in the Swedish welfare state. International Journal of Social Welfare, 22(2):130-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2012.00886.x

Kelfve S, Thorslund M, & Lennartsson C. (2013). Sampling and non-response bias on health outcomes in surveys of the oldest old. European Journal of Ageing, 10(3):237-245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-013-0275-7

Parker V, Andel R, Nilsen C, & Kåreholt I. (2013). The association between mid-life socioeconomic position and health after retirement – exploring the role of working conditions. Journal of Aging & Health, 25(5):863-881. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264313492822

Sundström, G, Thorslund, M. (2013). Healthy Aging in Sweden. In Scharlach A, Hoshino K, editors. Healthy aging in sociocultural context. New York: Routledge Press; p.33-41.

Ahacic K, Kennis R, & Kåreholt I. (2012). Changes in sobriety in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period, or cohort effects? Addiction; 107(4):748-755. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03692.x

Lexomboon D, Trulsson M, Wårdh I, & Parker MG. (2012). Chewing ability and tooth loss: association with cognitive impairment in an elderly population study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 60(10):1951-1956. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.04154.x

Parker, MG. & Agahi, N. (2012). Cohort change in living conditions and lifestyle among middle aged Swedes: the effects on mortality and late-life disability. In: Phellas C, editor. Aging in European societies. New York: Springer; p.237-253.

Parker MG. (2012). Aging in a gendered society: social and biological determinants of health in the elderly population. Chapter: Geriatrics. In: Schenk-Gustafsson K, DeCola PR, Pfaff DW, Pisetsky DS, editors. Handbook of clinical gender medicine.  Basel: Karger; p.482-488.

Agahi N, Silverstein M, & Parker MG. (2011). Late-life and earlier participation in leisure activities: their importance for survival among older persons. Activities Adaptation & Aging 2011; 35(3):210-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/01924788.2011.596758

Andel R, Crowe M, Kåreholt I, Wastesson J, & Parker MG. (2011). Indicators of Job Strain at Midlife and Cognitive Functioning in Advanced Old Age. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences Social Sciences, 66(3):287-291. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq105

Fors S, Lennartsson C, & Lundberg O. (2011). Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: a cohort study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39(2):179-186. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494810395823

Kåreholt I, Lennartsson C, Gatz M, & Parker MG. (2011). Baseline leisure activity and cognition more than two decades later. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(1):65-74. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.2490

Lennartsson C. (2011). Need and support: determinants of intra-familial financial transfers in Sweden. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20(1):66-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2009.00715.x

Meinow B, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2011). Consumers of eldercare in Sweden: the semblance of choice. Social Science Medicine 2011; 73(9):1285-1289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.015

Schön P, Parker MG, Kåreholt I, & Thorslund M. (2011) Gender differences in associations between ADL and other health indicators in 1992 and 2002. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(2):91-98. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03351074

Johnell, K. & Parker, MG. (2011) Gender differences in medication use by elderly people. In: Månsson SB, editor. From women’s health to gender medicine. Sweden: The Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research; p.37-49.

Trydegård, G-B, Thorslund, M. (2011). One uniform welfare state or a multitude of welfare municipalities? The evolution of local variation in Swedish elder care. In: Costa-Font J, editor. Reforming long-term care in Europe. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; p.137-152.

Ahacic K, & Kareholt I. (2010). Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the general Swedish population from 1968 to 2002: Age, period, and cohort patterns. Pain; 151(1):206-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.07.011

Lennartsson C, Silverstein M, & Fritzell J. (2010). Time-for-Money Exchanges Between Older and Younger Generations in Swedish Families. Journal of Family Issues, 31(2):189-210. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X09344158

Meinow B, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2010). Complex health problems and mortality in the oldest old in Sweden: Decreased risk for men between 1992 and 2002. European Journal of Ageing, 7:81-90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-010-0145-5

Parker MG, Lennartsson C, & Kelfve S. (2010). Approcher I’âge de la retraite en Suède: santé et ressources des 50-64 ans entre 1968 et 2000. Retraite et Société, 59:41-59.

Fors S, Lennartsson C, & Lundberg O. (2009). Childhood living conditions, socioeconomic position in adulthood, and cognition in later life — exploring the associations. Journal of Gerontology: B Psychological Sciences Social Sciences, 64(6):750–757. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp029

Schön P, & Parker MG. (2009). Sex differences in health in 1992 and 2002 among very old Swedes. Journal of Population Ageing, 1(2):107-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-009-9009-1

Agahi N, & Parker MG. (2008). Leisure activities and mortality: Does gender matter? Journal of Aging and Health, 20(7):855-871. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264308324631

Ahacic K, Kennison R, & Thorslund M. (2008). Trends in smoking in Sweden from 1968 to 2002: Age, period and cohort patterns. Preventive Medicine, 46:558-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.03.006

Fors S, & Lennartsson C. (2008). Social mobility, geographical proximity and intergenerational family contact, Ageing & Society, 28:253-270. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X07006617

Fors S, Lennartsson C, & Lundberg O. (2008). Health inequalities among older adults in Sweden 1991-2002. European Journal of Public Health, 18(2):138-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckm097

Haider SI, Johnell K, Thorslund M, & Fastbom J. (2008). Analysis of the association between polypharmacy and socioeconomic position among elderly aged 77+ in Sweden. Clinical Therapeutics, 30(2):419-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.02.010

Parker MG, Schön P, Lagergren M, & Thorslund M. (2008). Functional ability in the elderly Swedish population from 1980 to 2005. European Journal of Ageing, 5(4):299-309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-008-0096-2

Ahacic K, & Thorslund M. (2007). Changes in dental status and dental care utilization in the Swedish population over three decades: age, period or cohort effects? Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 6(2):118-127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00377.x

Ahacic K, Kåreholt I, Thorslund M, & Parker MG. (2007). Relationships between symptoms, physical capacity and activity limitations in 1992 and 2002. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 19(3):187-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03324688

Ahacic K, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2007). Aging in disguise: age, period and cohort effects in mobility and edentulousness over three decades. European Journal of Ageing, 4(2):83-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-007-0049-1

Andel R, Kåreholt I, Parker MG, Thorslund M, & Gatz M. (2007). Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognition in Advanced Old Age. Journal of Aging and Health, 19(3):397-415. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264307300171

Haider SI, Johnell K, Thorslund M, & Fastbom J. (2007). Trends in polypharmacy and potential drug-drug interactions across educational groups in elderly patients in Sweden for the period 1992-2002. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 45:643-653.

Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2007). Health trends in the elderly population: Getting better and getting worse. The Gerontologist 2007; 47(2):150-158.

Östberg V, & Lennartsson C. (2007). Getting by with a little help. The importance of various types of social support for health problems. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35:197-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/14034940600813032

Agahi N, Ahacic K, & Parker MG. (2006). Continuity of leisure participation from middle age to old age. Journals of Gerontology: B Psychological Sciences Social Sciences, 61(6):340-346. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/61.6.S340

Fors S, Thorslund M, & Parker MG. (2006). Do actions speak louder than words? Self-assessed and performance-based measures of physical and visual function among old people. European Journal of Ageing, 3(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-006-0021-5

Meinow B, Parker MG, Kåreholt I, & Thorslund M. (2006). Complex health problems in the oldest old in Sweden 1992-2002. European Journal of Ageing, 3(2):98-106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-006-0027-z

Agahi N, & Parker MG. (2005). Are today’s older people more active than their predecessors? Participation in leisure-time activities in Sweden in 1992 and 2002. Ageing & Society, 25(6):925-941. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X05004058

Beckman A, Bernsten C, Parker MG, Thorslund M, & Fastbom J. (2005). The difficulty of opening medicine containers in old age: a population based study. Pharmacy World & Science, 27(5):393-398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-005-7903-z

Beckman AG, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2005). Can elderly people take their medicine? Patient Education and Counseling 2005; 59(2):186-191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.11.005

Fritzell J, & Lennartsson C. (2005). Financial transfer between generations in Sweden. Ageing & Society 2005; 25:397-414. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X04003150

Parker MG, Ahacic K, & Thorslund M. (2005). Health changes among Swedish oldest old: Prevalence rates from 1992 and 2002 show increasing health problems. Journal of Gerontology: A Medical Sciences, 60(10):1351-1355.

Ahacic K, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2003). Mobility Limitations 1974-1991: Period changes explaining improvement in the population. Social Science and Medicine; 57:2411-2422. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00136-9

Manderbacka K, Kåreholt I, Martikainen P, & Lundberg O. (2003). The effect of point of reference on the association between self-rated health and mortality. Social Science & Medicine, 56:1447-1452. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00141-7

Silverstein M, & Parker MG. (2002). Leisure activities and the quality of life among the oldest old in Sweden. Research on Aging, 24:528-547. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027502245003

Kåreholt I. (2001). The relationship between heart problems and mortality in different social classes. Social Science & Medicine; 52:1391-1402.

Lennartsson, C. & Silverstein, M. (2001). Does Engagement-with-Life Enhance Survival of the Oldest Old? An Assessment of the Social and Leisure Activities of the Swedish Elderly. Journal of Gerontology: B Psychological Sciences Social Sciences, 56:335-342. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/56.6.S335

Ahacic K, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (2000). Mobility limitations in the Swedish population from 1968 to 1992: Age, gender and social class differences. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 12:190-198.

Lennartsson, C. (1999). Social Ties and Health Among the Very Old in Sweden. Research on Aging, 21:657-681. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027599215002

Parker, MG, Ahacic K, Thorslund M, & Lundberg O. (1999). Socioeconomic status and health among elderly people in Sweden. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896:383-385. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08148.x

Ahacic, K, Barenthin I, & Thorslund M. (1998). Changes in Swedish dental health 1968-91. Swedish Dental Journal, 5-6:211-222.

Kåreholt, I, & Brattberg G. (1998). Pain and Mortality Risk among Elderly Persons in Sweden. Pain, 77:271-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00103-1

Brattberg G, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (1997). A longitudinal study of pain: reported pain from middle age to old age. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 13(2):144-149.

Bernadotte af Wisborg, G., Claesson, C., Lundberg, O., & Thorslund, M. (1996). Drug usage and self-reported health among a cross-sectional population aged over 75 years. Clinical Drug Investigation, 12(3):156-169. https://doi.org/10.2165/00044011-199612030-00005

Brattberg G, Parker MG, & Thorslund M. (1996). The prevalence of pain among the oldest old in Sweden. Pain, 67: 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(96)03047-3

Lundberg O, & Thorslund M. (1996). Fieldwork and measurement considerations in surveys of the oldest old. Experiences from the Swedish level of living surveys. Social Indicators Research, 37:165-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00315527

Manderbacka K, & Lundberg O. (1996). Examining points of reference of self-rated health among Swedish oldest-old. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 23:47-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4943(96)00707-8

Parker, MG, Gatz, M, & Thorslund, M. (1996). Brief cognitive screening in a field survey of the oldest old. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 8(5):354-359. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03339593

Parker, MG., Thorslund, M., Lundberg, O. & Kåreholt, I. (1996). Predictors of physical function – a 24 year follow-up using three outcome variables. Journal of Aging and Health, 8:444-460. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826439600800307

Parker MG, Thorslund, M. & Lundberg, O. (1994). Physical function and social class among Swedish oldest old. Journals of Gerontology: B Psychological Sciences Social Sciences, 49:196-201. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/49.4.S196

Thorslund, M. & Lundberg, O. (1994). Health and inequalities among the oldest old. Journal of Aging and Health, 6(1):51-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/089826439400600104